Download A Bitter Peace: Washington, Hanoi, and the Making of the by Pierre Asselin PDF

By Pierre Asselin

Demonstrating the centrality of international relations within the Vietnam struggle, Pierre Asselin strains the key negotiations that led as much as the Paris contract of 1973, which ended America's involvement yet did not carry peace in Vietnam. as the facets signed the contract less than duress, he argues, the peace it promised used to be doomed to solve.

By January of 1973, the continued army stalemate and mounting problems at the household entrance pressured either Washington and Hanoi to finish that signing a obscure and principally unworkable peace contract used to be the main expedient approach to in attaining their such a lot urgent targets. For Washington, these ambitions integrated the discharge of yank prisoners, army withdrawal with out formal capitulation, and maintenance of yankee credibility within the chilly battle. Hanoi, nonetheless, sought to safe the elimination of yank forces, guard the socialist revolution within the North, and enhance the customers for reunification with the South. utilizing newly on hand archival assets from Vietnam, the USA, and Canada, Asselin reconstructs the key negotiations, highlighting the artistic roles of Hanoi, the nationwide Liberation entrance, and Saigon in developing the ultimate payment.

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Additional resources for A Bitter Peace: Washington, Hanoi, and the Making of the Paris Agreement

Sample text

41 Hanoi’s assessment of the divergent positions of Washington and Saigon proved correct. Upon hearing the news that the DRVN had accepted the American proposal to expand the talks, Thieu became furious. As stated earlier, he never expected the North Vietnamese to accept the proposal. As it turned out, however, Hanoi not only conceded, but its acceptance came at the worst possible time. With the American presidential election just days away, Johnson and the Democrats would seek to capitalize on that breakthrough and increase the pressure on both Hanoi and Saigon to accept a negotiated settlement.

36 On 3 October, the Vietnamese delegation received new instructions from Foreign Minister Trinh. ‘‘Under the present situation, our course of action is to find out how to compel the Americans to de-escalate [their war] in order to defeat them and guarantee the implementation of our political tasks,’’ Trinh wrote. ’’ If Hanoi succeeds in ‘‘forcing the Americans’’ to do what it wanted them to do, Trinh continued, ‘‘it will be an important strategic victory for us. 38 Hanoi understood that, though not a candidate himself, Lyndon Johnson wanted to help the election chances of fellow Democrat Hubert Humphrey.

133 On 31 May, in the aftermath of the allied incursion into Laos, Kissinger made a new set of proposals softening the American stand on several 27 28 The First Round substantive matters. 134 The last provision implied that Washington would agree to North Vietnamese troops remaining in the South at least temporarily after a cease-fire. 136 On 27 June, Thuy and Tho responded to Kissinger’s proposals, presenting a nine-point ‘‘bargaining proposal’’ notable not for its content but for its conciliatory nature.

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