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Extra resources for 10th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging: 15-16 May 2012, Savoy Place, London

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These points are defined in the p–V diagram as extrapolations to BDC by means of an isentropic expansion of the respective points where the inlet valve closes (IVC) and the exhaust valve opens (EVO). In the case of Miller with IVC before BDC, the point ac is the effective start of compression. Taking the closed cycle as the most important part of the process, one obviously must consider parameters like the compression ratio ε, firing pressure pmax and its ratio to compression pressure pc. The latter plays a very important role in the trade-off between efficiency and NOx-formation.

REFERENCES (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) M. M. Sastry, “Efficient Batteries for Transportation Applications”, Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE Technical Paper 2008-21-0017, 2008. 0, 2008. M. Shahed and K-H. Bauer, “Parametric Studies of the Impact of Turbocharging on Gasoline Engine Downsizing”, Society of Automotive Engineering, SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1472, 2009. M. T. P. Garner, “Turbo-Discharging: Predicted Improvements in Engine Fuel Economy and Performance”, Society of Automotive Engineers, SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0371, 2011.

In this case the critical expansion ratio is defined with reference to 98% of the maximum flow. 8. When the LP stage has also reached its critical pressure ratio, the expansion ratio of the HP turbine can no longer be changed, even though it is well below its critical value. This condition occurs in the example of Fig. 25 for the low pressure stage, which corresponds to an overall expansion ratio between 3 and 4, depending on pressure distribution at full load. The higher the ratio πC,LP/πC,HP, the earlier the low pressure stage attains its critical expansion ratio and the longer the πC,HP remains constant, leading to higher efficiency at part load.

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